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    山東亭子的簡單木材防腐方法

    來源:http://www.thecysterstory.com 時間:2020-09-07

    木材是由細胞構成的一種天然生成的生物材料,又是由天然高分子化合物組成的有機復合體,所以它既具有生物學特性,也具有高分子化學特性.這些特性中,有的是導致木材分解、破壞的根源所在,有的與木材保護處理技術的選擇及保護和利用的效果息息相關,下面介紹幾種木材防腐的方法.
    Wood is a kind of natural biomaterial composed of cells and an organic complex composed of natural polymer compounds. Therefore, wood has both biological and chemical characteristics. Some of these characteristics are the root of wood decomposition and destruction, and some are closely related to the selection of wood protection treatment technology and the effect of protection and utilization, The following introduces several methods of wood preservation
    1、干燥防腐
    1. Drying and anticorrosion
    木腐菌生存對濕度的要求,因菌種不同而有差異,只有當木材含水率高于20%時,木材內部才具備了多數木腐生存所需的環境濕度.木材含水率在20%以下時,木腐菌不再生長繁殖,最終自然死亡,木材則免遭危害.干燥木材使木材含水率降到20%以下,是防止木材腐朽的有效措施之一.
    Only when the moisture content of wood is higher than 20%, the wood will not grow and reproduce, and eventually die naturally, and the wood will not be harmed, It is one of the effective measures to prevent wood decay
    2、保濕存放
    2. Moisturizing storage
    引起木材腐朽的主要菌種是木腐菌,含水率為 20%-30% 的木材是絕大多數木腐菌寄生和繁殖的木材,該木材內部不僅具有木腐菌 生存所需的足夠水分,還存在一定的空氣,這樣為木腐菌創造了生存條件,使其能夠生存繁殖.尤其在陰暗潮濕環境中儲存和使用的木材, 更易受到木腐菌的危害.
    Wood rot fungi are the main bacteria causing wood decay. The wood with moisture content of 20% - 30% is the wood that most wood rot fungi parasitize and propagate. The wood not only has enough water for the survival of wood rot fungi, but also has certain air, which creates living conditions for wood rot fungi to survive and reproduce. Especially for the wood stored and used in dark and humid environment, It is more vulnerable to wood rot fungi
    在冬季和春季采伐的木材含水率為80%~100%.這種木材在存放中,我們需定期對其噴水,使木材內部水分不蒸發或少蒸發,木材始終處于水濕狀態.這樣,木材內部的空隙會充滿水分,減少氧氣含量,從而劣化木腐菌的生存環境,使木腐菌難以發育繁殖,以達到防止木腐菌侵害木材的目的,同時此舉還可以避免木材開裂.
    The moisture content of the wood harvested in winter and spring is 80% ~ 100%. During the storage of this kind of wood, we need to spray water regularly to make the water inside the wood not evaporate or less evaporate, and the wood is always in the state of water and humidity. In this way, the space inside the wood will be full of water and reduce the oxygen content, which will deteriorate the living environment of wood rot fungi and make it difficult for wood rot fungi to develop and reproduce, In order to prevent wood rot fungus from invading the wood, at the same time, it can also avoid wood cracking
    3、浸水存放
    3. Immersion storage
    長期貯存于水中木材的含水率高可達200%以上,濕材含有大量的水分,因而內部缺乏氧氣,不具備木腐菌的生存條件,致使木腐菌不能寄生于木材中.我們把木材貯存于水中可以達到防腐的目的.木材水存時應完全被浸沒于水中,不可漂浮在水面上,否則就為木腐菌創 造了生存條件,水面上暴露在空氣中的部分木材極易被木腐菌腐朽.
    The moisture content of wood stored in water for a long time can reach more than 200%. The wet wood contains a lot of water, so it is lack of oxygen inside and does not have the living conditions of wood rot fungi. Therefore, the wood rot fungi can not parasitize in the wood. We can achieve the purpose of preservation by storing the wood in water. When the wood is stored in water, it should be completely immersed in the water and not float on the water surface, Otherwise, it will create the living conditions for the wood rot fungus

    4、防腐袖涂刷
    4. Anti corrosion sleeve painting
    常用方法是將瀝青油涂刷于木材表面使木材與外面的空氣隔絕,并能阻止外界水份侵入木材.這也是建筑木構件常用的防腐方法,其毒性低,污染較少.
    The common method is to paint asphalt oil on the surface of wood to isolate the wood from the outside air and prevent water from invading into the wood. This is also a common antiseptic method for building wood components, with low toxicity and less pollution
    5、改變木材酸堿度 (pH值)
    5. Change the pH value of wood
    研究認為,木腐菌生長繁殖所需要的低酸堿度 (pH 值)為 4.5-5.5..木材在貯存過程中其含酸量會逐漸增加,所以絕大多數術材的 pH 值是在 4.0-6.5 之間,而當其 pH 值達到中性點即7 時,木材中的術腐菌就不能生長.所以,用堿性溶液處理木材,使木材 PH 值變成中性或弱堿性,可以破壞木腐菌的生存條件則可達到防腐之目的.
    The results showed that the low pH value (pH value) required for the growth and propagation of wood rot fungi was 4.5-5.5. The acid content of wood would increase gradually during storage, so the pH value of most of the wood was between 4.0 and 6.5. When the pH value reached the neutral point, i.e. 7, the wood could not grow, It can destroy the living conditions of wood rot fungi and achieve the purpose of antisepsis